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Barkerville formed in 1862 around the Barker Company mine on Williams Creek in the Cariboo District of British Columbia. In its 100 plus years there is a wealth of evidence of its inhabitants and the impact that they have made in the Cariboo.

 

Barkerville at War

Here are some memories of Barkerville at war.

The Story

P5271.jpgWhile working at Barkerville in the summer of 2013, Gavin Swan a student at University of Victoria compiled part of the story of Barkerville at War. You can download the entire 30-page Word.docx document here. A few excerpts are attached.

The Collections

You can view records from our collections database (including Cemetery, Library, Newspaper, and Photos) related to World War 1 and World War 2 - or other records referring to war...

The Pictures

Or just browse through the photos:
  • "World War" in the description - people in uniform.
  • World War I in the Subject
  • World War II in the Subject

WORLD WAR I

The Tregillus Letters

Currently the majority of time invested in the Barkerville at War Project has gone to researching Barkerville during the World War I. The Tregillus Letters have been indispensable in learning about Barkerville and its people during this era. This one-hundred-six piece collection consists of the letters sent from Barkerville soldiers to Frederick Tregillus. The bulk of the letters are from seven men; Ernest Seeley, George Freeman Killam, Joseph Callanan, John Petterson, George Turner, George Gilchrist, and John Benjamin Westover. Mr. and Mrs. Nowosky, R. Norris, J. H. Ellis, and N. W. Thompson also contributed on or two letters each.

The letters span from 1915 to 1919. They were sent from Canada, France, Belgium, and Great Britain. They were written by soldiers during varying circumstances; while training, serving at the front, while hospitalized, while on leave, and during demobilization. The changing conditions experienced are reflected in the opinions, anecdotes, and feelings articulated in these letters. Topics discussed are; weather, food, patriotism, war conditions, combat experiences, site seeing, attitudes towards other soldiers, opinions of international developments, holidays and celebrations, opinions of domestic political issues, among others.

The Tregillus Letter Collection is an invaluable academic resource. This collection of primary sources has greatly contributed to the study of Barkerville during this era. However, the Tregillus Letters are far more than just an academic resource. They are a testament to the bravery and sacrifice of the men who fought in the First World War.

Introduction to World War I and the Western Front

World War I lasted between 1914 and 1918. It resulted in millions casualties and ended several empires in Europe. The answer to why such a war could take place resides in the centuries preceding the war. Through conquest and colonization, the nations of Europe had created vast empires. Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Russia, the Ottomans, among others all competed for territory abroad. By 1900, much of Africa, Australia, the Middle East, Asia, and the Americas were under the control of the empires of Europe. In an attempt to safe-guard there gains from others, a complex web of alliances formed between the nations. This meant that a small conflict had the potential to quickly escalate into a world war.

The assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand in the Balkans was the spark necessary for such a war to begin. The system of alliances quickly split Europe into two sides of relatively equal strength. In Western Europe, Germany was situated against French and British troops. Neither side could obtain a quick victory. This resulted in both sides digging in, attempting to gradually wear the other forces down through prolonged fighting. A long line of trenches formed across France and Belgium, becoming known as the Western front. There new military technologies such as deadly gas, barbed wire, improved artillery, and the machine gun resulted in millions of casualties. Industrialization facilitated the mass production of these weapons, resulting in destruction on a scale previously unimaginable.

Barkerville and World War I

When Britain declared war on Germany in 1914, the rest of her empire did so automatically. As part of Canada, Barkerville was therefore in a state of war. By now Barkerville was an established gold mining town, its people the legacy of the previous gold rushes. As it will be shown, not everyone experienced the war in the same way. Some were to become patriotic supporters, and others were to remain passive observers; some would volunteer for service, and others would be forced into participating. This part of the Barkerville at War project endeavors to accomplish two tasks: First, to provide accounts of how individual families and people of Barkerville experienced World War I, and second to analyze how the war affected groups and the town as a whole.

The Boyd Brothers of Cottonwood House

Cottonwood House was built in the 1860’s for the purpose of supplying and accommodating travelers between Barkerville and Quesnel.[1] The Boyd family who resided in Cottonwood House therefore kept close ties to both towns. Three brothers from Cottonwood House fought in World War I. One of these men was named Chester Fleming Boyd. He was born May 24, 1880, while his parents were visiting relatives on San Juan Island.[2] Before enlisting he worked as a clerk at the newly constructed Quesnel Court House.[3] In 1915 he joined the Canadian Expeditionary Force fighting as one of the Cariboo Boys in the 67th Battalion.[4] Ernest Seeley in a letter to Fred Tregillus praised C. Boyd (as well as W. Fletcher, G. Turner, and himself) for displaying great discipline and unquestioning obedience during drills.[5] Ernest Seeley encountered C. Boyd later in the war at the Maples Leaf Club in London.[6] Seeley recounted the event to Tregillus in another letter:

“Hamilton & I met C. Boyd in the Bath room both of us stripped stark & in comes C. Boyd you can guess what a noise for a minute or two. Boyd looked well & was in good heart.”[7]

Two weeks after this letter was written Chester Fleming Boyd would be dead. He was killed in action while serving in France on August 7, 1917.[8]

The second Boyd brother would suffer a similar fate. Archibald Arthur Boyd was born August 21, 1887 at Cotton House.[9] He enlisted in 1915 and also served in the 67th Battalion.[10] A. Boyd was killed in action in France on April 9, 1917.[11] Gilbert Freeman Killam took note of his death in a letter to Tregillus a few months after the event. “I picked up a ‘Canada’ magazine a short time ago, -the first one for weeks, (and have not seen one since) and almost the first thing I put my hands on was the record of Arch Boyd, “killed in action.”[12]

Only the youngest of the three Boyd brothers survived the war. Walter Harold Boyd was born August 14, 1891.[13] W. Boyd worked as an apprentice carpenter before enlistment. He joined the 67th Battalion of the CEF with his two brothers Chester and Archibald in 1915.[14] Ernest Seeley was critical of both W. Boyd and A. Boyd’s behaviour during drill practices. He wrote to Fred Tregillus complaining that “Archie and Walter Boyd both seem slow yet seem to think they can have their own way.”[15] After the war W. Boyd continued to work as a carpenter.[16] He died in the January of 1966 and is buried in the Quesnel Cemetery.[17]

The Callanan Family

Doctor Michael Callanan lived in Barkerville with his family from about 1903 to 1928.[18] He was an Irish physician practicing at the Royal Cariboo Hospital.[19] He also worked as a Conservative member of the Legislative Assembly for Cariboo from 1909 to 1916.[20] Doctor Callanan actively supported war efforts in Barkerville, sometimes acting as a medical officer in Barkerville.[21] After the war Doctor Callanan left Barkerville.[22] The building where the Callanan family resided is currently on display in Barkerville Historic Town.

Joseph Callanan was born November 11, 1888 in Victoria, British Columbia.[23] His father was Doctor Michael Callanan, and his mother was Hannah Callanan.[24] He was an Irish Roman Catholic with black hair, grey eyes, nearly six feet in stature.[25] Before the war he worked as a clerk.[26] He was likely one of the first men of Barkerville to volunteer for service, enlisting just after celebrating his 26th birthday in mid-November of 1914.[27] He arrived in the French city of Boulogne on September 18th, 1915.[28] While serving with the 29th Vancouver Battalion he travelled to the front in Ypres, Belgium.[29] On May 23, 1916 he wrote home from somewhere in Flanders: “You will see by my address that I have left the 29th and am now in what is termed out here a suicide gang, well maybe it is a little more dangerous but it is full of excitement all the time and one gets full value for his money I can assure you.” Adding, “the authorities are very strict about the women but where there is a will there is a way and leave it to me to find that way. There are some beautiful women in this country I must say, and our main items when out on rest are women and French Beer.”[30] On June 6, 1916, J. Callanan was killed from “an attack made by Germans [at] about 1:20 AM on CULVERT, HOOGE Sector.” [31] After which the German attack was successfully repulsed.[32] Having never married, Joseph Callanan left all of his property and effects to his sister Eileen Callanan.[33]

The Brown Family

Henry Nicholas Brown was born November 14, 1850 in Freiberg, Germany.[34] It is possible his last name may be an anglicised version of the German name Braun. He came to Barkerville from San Francisco following the news of gold.[35] He became a naturalized British subject on August 7, 1881, which requires a minimum of three years residing in Canada.[36] He married Mary Catherine from Hesse-Dornstadt Germany. [37] Together they had twelve children, four of them boys.[38] The family operated a hotel in Richfield.[39] Henry died in 1896, and is buried in the Barkerville cemetery.[40] Mary Catherine later remarried. She died in 1904 also to be buried in the Barkerville cemetery.[41]

Many of the Brown children continued living and working in Barkerville into the First World War. None of the four boys volunteered for military service, perhaps this was influenced by the family`s German heritage. As the war continued however, the amount of volunteers for the military decreased. Conscription began to be seen by some as a necessary measure to ensure victory. In 1917 conscription became a decisive issue in the election. It was obvious to everyone what conscription would mean for Barkerville. Sargent George Gilchrist on the topic of conscription: “I suppose the Brown Boys will be called up to do a little. There ain’t very many up there eligible for the army.”[42] He later wrote back home in December that “voting is on in the camps at present and the soldiers are all voting the right way, for conscription. We want lots of help to beat the Germans to their knees. There are some I would like to see come over here and give us a hand, but without conscription, they will not move. Fred, it is no use for me to mention names.”[43] Ernest Seeley, another soldier from Barkerville, wrote home a month earlier stating that “the Brown family certainly is getting its reward for its pro German ideas. I have heard from several sources of these pro German sentiments… most of us will have good judgement I think, surly conscription will reach the Brown boys.”[44]

Indeed at least one of the Brown men were conscripted into the military; George Nicholas Brown, who was born in Richfield on April 30, 1889.[45] He was the tenth child and second boy of the Brown family. He was a Presbyterian with a dark complexion, brown eyes, and brown hair.[46] He likely continued working as a miner until being drafted under the Military Service Act. Like many conscripts however, his military career was relatively brief. He arrived in England February 28, 1918 via the S.S. Scotian.[47] He was enlisted into the 2nd Depot Battalion British Columbia Regiment, serving in France and Belgium until the war ended November of that year.[48]

George Turner

W.M. Hong’s memoir …And So… That’s How It Happened had this to say about George Turner:

“Turner continued working at Little Valley until World War I began and the mine closed. Turner enlisted in 1915, and served in France. After suffering a serious leg wound, he was sent to England where he met his second wife, Mary Bradley. Turner returned to the Cariboo after his discharge in 1917, and was foreman at Lightning Creek Hydraulic Mine from 1919 to 1921. Miss Bradley joined him in 1920.

They were married and their daughter Margaret was born the following year. Back in 1909, Turner had invested in some property at Bowron Lake, near the bridge over the lower Bowron River. Kenneth McLeod, formerly employed by the Hudson’s Bay, had built a house on sizeable acreage and settled there. Turner bought out McLeod and used the land to grow hay. He moved his family there in the early ‘20s, and became the first game warden in the Bowron Lake area.

For a time, turner was also a member of the old B.C. Provincial Police, from which he resigned in 1928 after being requested to transfer to Hanceville.

George Turner was also actively involved in mining and was in partnership with Lester Bonner in many placer claims. Consequently, the Turners resided in Barkerville, as well as their home at Bowron Lake. Unfortunately, the effects of Turner’s war injuries eventually caused osteomyelitis. He became seriously ill and died in Barkerville January 11, 1938. He was buried in the old Quesnel cemetery.”[49]

J.B. Nason

In …And So… That’s How It Happened W.M. Hong recalled that “Nason had been born at Richfield in 1888, the son of I.B. Nason, and served in World War I, returning badly wounded and permanently crippled. However, he married a girl from Cloverdale and farmed there until 1932, when he saw his wife returned to Barkerville. Nason spent a few years prospecting on Williams and Sugar Creeks.”[50]

Chinese of Barkerville

In 1914 the Chinese continued to compose a sizable part of the population of Barkerville. Despite this, the Chinese had little direct involvement in the war. This was true for a variety of reasons. The Chinese of Barkerville likely did not feel they had a stake in the war, lacking strong cultural, political, and family ties to either side. Furthermore, pro-war propaganda came across a distinct cultural and language barrier. Appeals to fight for a foreign king and country were unlikely to persuade a largely transient Chinese population.

While most of the Chinese men in Barkerville were likely already disinterested in enlistment, Chinese enlistment was further discouraged through administrative barriers. The Vancouver Island Public Library website, as of July 24, 2013, indicates that some Chinese-Canadians who volunteered to serve in the Canadian Expeditionary Force were rejected in British Columbia on account of their ethnicity. Even as the war progressed, Chinese-Canadians were not seen as priority candidates for the military. While the Military Service Act of 1917 did not explicitly exempt Chinese from conscription, in practice Chinese men were not conscripted. [51] No men registered in the 54th or 67th CEF Battalions list China as their country of origin, and no men registered have names of Chinese origin.[52] It is estimated that fewer than 300 ethnically Chinese men served in the Canadian Expeditionary Force during the war.[53] It is very unlikely that any of these men came from Barkerville.

Instead, the role of the Chinese in Barkerville was primarily economic. The war brought about new investment opportunities elsewhere in Canada and abroad. This decreased capital investment across the Cariboo. This resulted in a decrease in employment. Mines shut down or ran below capacity. With less employment available, Chinese men turned to prospecting and undertook small placer mining operations, some with great success.[54]

Women of Barkerville

The First World War brought about significant social change in much of the warring states. With a large portion of the male population at war, many women entered a formally male dominated work force. While in Shorncliffe, England, Barkerville soldier Ernest Seeley made note of this change. “It is very easy to see that a great number of the men are gone. Women are so many more than men. Women Post Girls & in some cases Motor Bus Conductors in London & they look very well in their uniform & are modest appearing but well able to take of themselves. Also women ticket takers at all stations I have seen & in many other lines women are at work usually done by men.”[55]

In Barkerville however this trend was less profound. As a frontier town, the population of Barkerville remained predominantly male. The war caused some mines to close which caused a work shortage, rather than an increased demand in labour. Furthermore, the Chinese men of Barkerville did not leave to fight abroad.
The women of Barkerville were not idle however. Mrs. Tregillus, Mrs. Murphy, and likely many other woman contributed to the Barkerville Wool Fund which sent clothing to the front.[56] Ads in the Cariboo Observer also indicate that many women organized through the Red Cross Society.[57] This organization would send parcels of food, clothing, and other goods to soldiers overseas. One appreciative soldier wrote an editorial titled “Appreciate the Work of the Women” in response to receiving one of these parcels:

The Editor of the Observer:

Dear Sir – I am in receipt of a parcel of luxuries, with a note bearing the signature “Alice Mountfield” on behalf of the Quesnel Red Cross, and I would like to express through the medium of your paper my sincere thanks to my benefactress and the society.

I gather from a note left in the toe of one of the socks that they were knit by Mrs. Lena Henry Brown, of Barkerville, and if the kind lady in question could only realize the comfort given me by these hand-knit socks she would understand the extent of my gratitude. The cake and candy also arrived in good condition, and were highly relished. This parcel made a trip 9,000 miles to reach me here, which may be a record journey for a parcel from the Society. This is not the first parcel received from the Society, but previously I have acknowledge them to the actual senders.

My direct address is 238, Co. 14, A.H.F., Salonica Army. It is more likely that I am the only Caribooite in these parts, but if you should know of anyone else here I would be very glad of his (or her) address.

It is two years last March since I left Cariboo to join the army in England, and as we have Fritz more or less on the run now I hope to be in Cariboo, my home for several years, before many more months.

It is almost unbearably hot here now and we are as brown as doughnuts. The climate is none too healthy, and we get a good deal of malaria, ect., but I have been fortunate in only being off duty one day in the ten months we have been here. We lid sixteen months’ service on transport duty in England before coming out here. Thanking you, Mr. Editor, in anticipation, and again thanking the ladies of the Society for the splendid and highly appreciated work they are doing for the boys, I am,

Yours Truly,

M. Warden, Sergt.

With Salonica Army,

29th June, 1917.[58]

While not present in Barkerville during the war, Mrs. Charlotte Brown contributed greatly to the war effort. She was one of the first women of the Cariboo and lived in Barkerville for ten years. [59] She was born in Wolverhampton, England, and travelled as a young women travelling through Cape Horn to Victoria.[60] In the 1850s she journeyed with her two gold seeking cousins, the Spruce boys, into the interior of British Columbia.[61] She lived in Barkerville with her husband Robert Henry Brown, a superintendent of a mining company.[62] The January 5, 1923 issue of the Daily Colonist describes how “during the war Mrs. Brown was untiring in her efforts to supply comforts for the soldiers in the field. She knitted hundreds of pairs of socks and provided other comforts, and for her services she was presented the Voluntary Workers Badge, issued by the War Office through the auxillary of the Canadian Field Comforts Commission at Shorncliffe, England.”[63]

Economic Conditions of Barkerville

Examination of the Annual Reports of the Minister of minds reveals how the war affected Barkerville economically. While some reports are more optimistic than others, the trend generally shows Barkerville during a period of gradual decline. In 1914 Barkerville was already in economic trouble. “The last two or three years… the mining industry has been more or less in a dormant state although; I am convinced that before very long it will again wake up and be as full of life as ever.” [64]

While the war continued to depress an already struggling Barkerville, its effects were not exclusively negative. The Annual Report of the Ministry of Mines dated December 31, 1915 reads:

“As can be readily understood, the prevailing hard times had their effect on the mining industry as well as other industries. Yet, whilst they had a harmful effect on the industry, by making capital hard to get, they also had a beneficial effect.

The lack of capital caused some properties to remain idle and others to be worked in a much smaller way than the original intentions. On the other hand, owing to the scarcity of work, many men went prospecting; this I learn was the case throughout the entire district, both in the case of whites and Chinese.

This state of affairs resulted in a very considerable amount of gold being recovered, which in ordinary years would not have been the case. Several small storekeepers in the district have informed me that, whereas in past years they have only taken in a few hundreds in gold-dust, this year they have taken in one or two thousand and in some cases even more.

Thus, in a way, hard times have had a somewhat beneficial effect on the mining industry in the Cariboo District; it has driven the men back to the land and shown them that the country is still worth prospecting, and that there is still a living to be obtained by working the placer-ground in this country, as many have made good wages all summer, and some have even done better. I may add that considerable of the gold recovered has been from creeks which the old-timers claim to have been long since worked out.”[65]

The Annual Report of the Ministry of Mines dated December 31, 1916 reads:

“The season just past has certainly been the quietest that the Cariboo District has seen for a long time; fewer of the old-time properties having been worked, practically no new work started, comparatively few leases applied for, and very few new claims recorded. This has naturally somewhat reduced the revenue of this office and the other mining offices in this district.

I do not consider this state of quietness will in any way be of a permanent nature; it is caused simply by the financial depression prevailing more or less over the whole of the Dominion, created by the present war.

It must be bourne in mind that, in these days of war, capitalists have been somewhat diffident with regard to mining, as there have been so many other fields of investment opened up to them. Apparently, if capital has in any way been attracted to mining, it has been mining other than placer-mining, which is the style of mining chiefly carried on in this district.

However, apparently it has not been only the lack of capital that has been felt in the district ruring the past season, but it appears that the actual mining population has been considerably reduced; this is clearly shown by the number of free miners’ certificates issued, the number this year being very much smaller than previous years- another war condition; as many men who in past years did a certain amount of prospecting or worked claims in a small way have either enlisted in the Canadian Forces or have left the district to fill positions left vacant by those that have enlisted in other parts of the Province. These conditions have not only had the effect of materially reducing the actual revenue usually derived from the mining industry in these parts, but have also had the effect of considerably reducing the amount of the output of placer gold during the past season, and thus making it appear that this district is practically not worked as regards mining.

However, it becomes more and more evident as time goes on that this Division is no longer the country for the small man or properties worked in a small way. It is a country very expensive to live and work in and a country with but a short mining season; that is, for hydraulicking. A small outfit has not sufficient time in the open season to move the required amount of ground to pay expenses; whereas if the same property was worked with a very much larger plant and a slightly larger staff, it would make very satisfactory returns. There are many properties in this district which, if opened up on a somewhat larger scale, might yet be turned into good paying mines.”[66]

No such good fortune would come in 1917 either. The Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines of December 31, 1917 again recorded bad news:

“Gold-mining also suffered from the increased costs of labour and supplies, with no corresponding increase in the value of the metal produced, thereby causing a smaller margin of profit, and, in many cases, making it unprofitable to mine gold.”[67]

The struggling state of Barkerville did not go unnoticed even by the soldiers abroad. Ernest Seeley wrote home: “I quite expect that business in the gold fields is absolutely nil; and it is but typical of the general business stagnations when your gold mines go idle; yet it cannot always be so, and we need not look forward so much in hope as in anticipation where gold is concerned, so we must trust to a peaceful and commercial future.”[68]

Another soldier, Gilbert Freeman Killam wrote from England: “Old Barkerville seems to be getting it in the neck all around these days and what keeps Kelly, Harpers and the rest going puzzles me. The country must be destitute of business activity- positively stagnant, but they cannot exist on nothing… it would hardly seem in reason to expect brighter days while the war lasts, therefore let us hope the war will end soon.”[69]

After the war in 1919 it was written that “… everybody in Barkerville seems to be making money now.”[70] However this was only temporary. Barkerville as a gold mining town had already seen its best days.

Future of the Barkerville at War Project

The Barkerville at War Project is far from complete. Many soldiers from Barkerville who fought in World War I have yet to be identified. Furthermore many soldiers that have been identified have yet to be researched, including; John Patterson, Eddie Armstrong, C. Thompson, Ed Brunnell, George Swanson, Steve Radencic, Jack Roddick, Kit Carson, John Butts, and George Victor Kelly.

Future additions to the project may include reports on Barkerville`s relation to earlier conflicts, such as the American Civil War, the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, or the Boer War. Research on these wars will likely be restricted however by scarce materials. Appendices have been created to compile resources pertaining to each individual conflict for easier reference, however do to time constraints these Appendices do not reflect all of Barkerville`s material. The Second World War is likely the next task for the project; the documents referenced in Appendix V as “Allied Forces Exemption Act and War Mariners Benefit Act” contains numerous letters and is an ideal place to start further research.

Bibliography

“Aliens and Naturalization.” August 7, 1881. Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.

“Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines, Volume II, 1903-1929.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call information REF 354.405 MIN 1903. Accession number 2005.0123.0195.

Brown, George Nicholas. “Family Group Record #2.” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

Brown, George Nicholas. “Canadian Expeditionary Force Discharge Certificate.” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

“Canadian Expeditionary Force 54th Battalion Nominal Roll of Officers, Non Commissioned Officers, and Men, 1915.” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “World War I.”

“Canadian Expeditionary Force 67th Battalion Nominal Roll of Officers, Non Commissioned Officers, and Men, 1917.” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “World War I.”

“Chinese-Canadians in World War I (1914-1918).” Vancouver Island Public Library. Accessed July 24, 2013 from http://www.vpl.ca/ccg/WWI.html.

“Dr. Callanan’s.” The Traveller’s Site Guide to Barkerville Historic Town. Canada: Vanpress Printers Ltd, 2009.

Hong, W.M. …And So… That’s How it Happened: Recollections of Stanley-Barkerville 1900-1975. Coquitlam: W.M. Hong, 2007.

“Mrs. Charlotte Brown.” Newspaper article, obituary. No date. Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

P.M. Lindsay to Barkerville Historic Town, Letter. March 10, 2000. Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

“Short Form. Proceedings on Discharge. (Demobilization.).” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

Skelton, Robin. They Call it the Cariboo. Victoria: Sono Nis Press, 1980.

“The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House.” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Boyd Family.”

“The Military Service Act, 1917.” Accessed July 13, 2013 from http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/first-world-war/homefront-1917/military-service-act/.

“Tregillus Letters: World War I, transcribed by Stan Hack and Kathy Landry.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call information 971.12 HAC 2002. Accession number 2012.13.18.

“Verification of Marriage Particulars G146.” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

“Woman Pioneer of Cariboo Dies Here.” The Daily Colonist, January 5, 1923. Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

Wright, Richard Thomas. Discover Barkerville, A Gold Rush Adventure.Vancouver: Special Interest Publications, 1984.

“WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call information 971.06, WWI n.d. Accession number 2003.0123.0047.

Appendix I: American Civil War

  1. Books, Documents, and Newspaper Articles

Reference folder “Edelblute, Lucius A.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “Roeder, Captain Henry.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “United States, History, Civil War.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Custis-Lee Mansion, the Robert E. Lee Memorial, Virginia. Barkerville Library and Archives. Accession Number 1991.0123.1156. Call Number 973.75 NEL 1956.

Appendix II: Franco-Prussian War 1871

  1. Books, Documents, and Newspaper Articles

Newspaper. “War in Europe.”August 6, 1870. Barkerville, Williams Creek, Cariboo. Barkerville Online Collections. http://www.barkerville.com/vol2/war.htm

Appendix III: Boer War

  1. Books, Documents, and Newspaper Articles

Newspaper. “Re: The Boer War.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call Number 1993.0024.

Reference folder “War, Boer War” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “Bonner, Leicester A. + Company” Barkerville Library and Archives.

  1. Photographs

P0482 Accession Number 1980.0001.0144. “Tregillus Photos, P301 to P599.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Wentworth Bell in Boer War Uniform.

P0063 Accession Number 1979.0058.0089. “Tregillus Photos, P001 to P300.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Leicester A. Bonner in Boer War Uniform.

Appendix IV: World War I

  1. Artifacts

Seymour, C.J. Senn’s War Time Cooking Guide. Barkerville Library and Archives. Accession Number 1977.51.252.

Seymour, C.J. Alleged German Outrages. Barkerville Library and Archives. Accession Number 1976.51.346.

German Military Helmet. Barkerville Library and Archives. Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2000.0041.0307.

Note: This was a gift from George Gilchrist to Alf Tregillus, as indicated in Tregillus Letters 43 and 46.

  1. Books, Documents, and Newspaper Articles

“Annual Reports of the Minister of Mines, Volume II, 1903-1929.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call information REF 354.405 MIN 1903. Accession number 2005.0123.0195.

Reference folder “Boyd Family.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Reference folder “World War I.” Barkerville Library and Archives.

Newspaper. “Mrs. Charlotte Brown.” No date. Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

Newspaper. “War Bulletins.” The Cariboo Observer. February 27, 1915. Quesnel Museum and Archives. http://www.quesnelmuseum.ca/CaribooObserverDocs/1915/19150227_Cariboo%20Observer.pdf.

“Tregillus Letters: World War I, transcribed by Stan Hack and Kathy Landry.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call information 971.12 HAC 2002. Accession number 2012.13.18.

“WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Barkerville Library and Archives. Call information 971.06, WWI n.d. Accession number 2003.0123.0047.

  1. Photographs

“Tregillus Photos, P5201 to P5400.” Collection. Barkerville Library and Archives. P5255-5310 Accession Numbers 999.9.2147-999.9.206

P5255 Accession Number 999.9.2.147. Possibly Lloyd Wheeler, Leisure.

P5256 Accession Number 999.9.2.148. Possibly Lloyd Wheeler, Leisure.

P5257 Accession Number 999.9.2.149. Possibly Lloyd Wheeler, Leisure.

P5258 Accession Number 999.9.2.150. Possibly Lloyd Wheeler, Leisure.

P5260 Accession Number 999.9.2.152. Possibly Lloyd Wheeler, Leisure.

P5261, Accession Number 999.9.2153. Lloyd Wheeler, Mary Tregillus, and Unknown at the tregillus House Circa 1920.

P5262, Accession Number 999.9.2155. “Mildred Best Wishes for a Very Merry Christmas” Lloyd Wheeler in uniform, Christmas 1920.

P5263 Accession Number 999.9.2156. “The guy who won the war” Lloyd Wheeler in Uniform.

P5264 Accession Number 999.9.2157. Lloyd Wheeler and three others at train station Circa 1920.

P5265 Accession Number 999.9.2158. Lloyd Wheeler and other at beach circa 1920.

P5266 Accession Number 999.9.2159. Lloyd Wheeler and other posing in uniform circa 1920.

P5267 Accession Number 999.9.2160. Lloyd Wheeler and other posing on bench in uniform circa 1920.

P5268 Accession Number 999.9.2161. Lloyd Wheeler and other posing with cannon in uniform circa 1920. P5269 Accession Number 999.9.2162. Lloyd Wheeler posing with aircraft in uniform circa 1920.

P5270 Accession Number 999.9.263. Two men in World War I uniforms.

P5271 Accession Number 999.9.2164. Five men posing in World War I military dress.

P5272 Accession Number 999.9.2165. Four men posing in Military uniforms.

P5273 Accession Number 999.9.2174. Caption “A Thistle between two roses” Harry Brierly on left, Tom Brierley on right, Scottie Gilchrist center.

P5274 Accession Number 999.9.2167. Eight men in World War I Military Uniforms.

P5276 Accession Number 999.9.2169. Distant ships on Horizon.

P5277 Accession Number 999.9.2170. Twenty-one men in World War I Uniform, Lloyd Wheeler Middle row second from left.

P5278 Accession Number 999.9.2171. Unknown man in World War I Uniform.

P5279 Accession Number 999.9.2172. Photo of Joeseph Callanan in World War I Uniform.

P5280 Accession Number 999.9.2173. Photo of Joseph Callanan in World War I Uniform.

P5281 Accession Number 999.9.2175. Photo of two men in World War I Uniform, received by Alf Tregillus 26 December 1917.

P5293 Accession Number 999.9.2187. 67 Battalion Western Scots Canadian Expeditionary Force.

P5294 Accession Number 999.9.2188. 67 Battalion Western Scots Canadian Expeditionary Force.

P5295 Accession Number 999.9.2189. “54 Ky. Battalion Canadian Expeditionary Force. (Vernon B.C. 1915)

P5299 Accession Number 999.9.2194. Ernest Seeley circa 1915.

P5300 Accession Number 999.9.2195. Ernest Seeley circa 1915.

P5301 Accession number 999.9.2196 Photo sent from Ernest Seeley to Fred Tregillus Circa 1915.

Appendix V: World War II

  1. Artifacts

Royal Canadian Air Force Pin. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2001.0004.0113.

Royal Canadian Air Force Military Pennant “COAL HARBOUR.” Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0222.

Uniform Jacket. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0404a.

Polish Cloth “Victory- The Glad Rag.” Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0404b.

Uniform Belt. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.004.0404c.

Uniform Pant. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.004.0424a.

Uniform Belt. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.004.0424b.

Uniform Jacket. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0424c.

Uniform Jacket. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0440a.

Uniform Hat with PCMR emblem and Belt. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0440b.

Uniform Pant. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0440c.

Coat. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.0576.

Royal Canadian Air Force T-Shirt. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.0004.1908.

“Royal Canadian Air Force” Patch. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2006.0010.0397.

“RCAF White Horse Y.T.” Patch. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2006.0010.398.

“RCAF White Horse Y.T.” Patch. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2006.0010.0399.

Ammo Belt. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0095.0580.

Royal Canadian Air Force Stationary. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0095.0616a.

Royal Canadian Air Force Envelopes and Stationary. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0095.0616b.

Badge. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.95.1393.

Wallet, Unused Identification Card, Note reading “Greetings Dearful, Good huck o’ love from Peg” with Christmas tree and Star Stickers. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.95.1607.

Photo Album and Christmas Note. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0095.1613.

Royal Canadian Air Force Pin. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0096.0120.

Venereal Disease Treatment Kit and Instructions. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0096.0778.

Royal Canadian Air Force Stationary Folder and Envelopes. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0096.0886.

Royal Canadian Air Force Stationary Folder. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2008.0096.0887.

Matchbook. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2009.0003.0032.

Military Grooming Kit. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2009.0004.0280.

Military Sewing Kit. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2009.004.0281.

Royal Canadian Air Force T-Shirt. Barkerville Library and Archives, Building 160 Storage. Accession Number 2005.004.0914.

  1. Books, Documents, and Newspaper Articles

“Allied Forces Exemption Act and War Mariners Benefit Act.” RG 369 Box 2 of 3 (L5). Barkerville Library and Archives. Call Number 996.17.31.

Newspaper. “This is Berlin Today.” January 11, 1947. Barkerville Library and Archives. Dannhaur/Halverson House 1-3 Box 1. Call Number 993.98.

Newspaper. “The Tribune.” February 12, 1940. Barkerville Library and Archives. Eagle Co. Claim 1-8 Box 1 of 2. Call Number 993.98.

Newspaper. “The Tribune- Carry on the Homefront.” February 19, 1940. Barkerville Library and Archives. Eagle Co. Claim 1-7 Box 1 of 2. Call Number 993.98.

Newspaper. “The Wells Chronicle- Barkerville in Winning Way.” February 22, 1940. Barkerville Library and Archives. Eagle Co. Claim 1-5 Box 1 of 2. Call Number 993.98.

Newspaper. “The Wells Chronicle.” February 8, 1940 Eagle Co. Claim 1-4 Box 1 of 2. Barkerville Library and Archives. Call Number 993.98.

  1. Photographs

“Tregillus Photos, P5201 to P5400.” Collection. Barkerville Library and Archives. P5311-5386 Accession Numbers 999.9.2147-999.9.206

P5368 Accession Number 999.0009.2249.05. At Carcross Yukon, Men in Uniform.

P5369 Accession Number 999.0009.2249.06. Possible Barracks.

P5371 Accession Number 999.0009.2249.08. World War II Aircraft and men.

P5374 Accession Number 999.0009.2250.02. World War II Aircraft.

P5375 Accession Number 999.0009.2250.03. Men in World War II Uniforms celebrating on vehicle.

P5376 Accession Number 999.0009.2250.05. Men in World War II Era Attire posing.

P5377 Accession Number 999.0009.2250.06. Men in World War II Uniforms celebrating on vehicle.

P5386 Accession Number 999.0009.2258. Alf Tregillus on right with two other men.



[1] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[2] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[3] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[4] “Canadian Expeditionary Force, 67th Battalion, Nominal Roll of Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men,” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “World War I.”

[5] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, October 30, 1915, Letter 31, Barkerville Library and Archives, “Tregillus Letters: World War I, transcribed by Stan Hack and Kathy Landry.”

[6] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, June 26, 1917, Letter 9, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[7] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, June 26, 1917, Letter 9, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[8] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[9] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[10] “67th Battalion, Nominal Roll,” reference folder “World War I.”

[11] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[12] Gilbert Freeman Killam to Frederick Trgillus, July 10, 1917, Letter 23, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[13] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[14] “67th Battalion, Nominal Roll,” reference folder “World War I.”

[15] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, October 30, 1915, Letter Number 31, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[16] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[17] “The Boyd Family and Cottonwood House,” reference folder “Boyd Family.”

[18] “Dr. Callanan’s,” in The Traveller’s Site Guide to Barkerville Historic Town, (Canada: Vanpress Printers Ltd, 2009), 47.

[19] Richard Thomas Wright, Discover Barkerville A Gold Rush Adventure (Vancouver: Special Interest Publications, 1984), 76.

[20] “Dr. Callanan’s,” Traveller’s Site Guide, 47.

[21] “WWI Veterams Administration Records,” Barkerville Library and Archives, George Gilchrist, “Attestation Paper, Canadian Over-seas Expeditionary Force.”

[22] William Hong, …And So… That’s how it Happened (Coquitlam: W.M. Hong, 2007), 215.

[23] “WWI Veterans Administration Records,” Barkerville Library and Archives. Joseph Callanan, “Attestation Paper for Canadian Over-Seas Expeditionary Force.”

[24] “WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Joseph Callanan, “Attestation Paper.”

[25] “WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Joseph Callanan, “Attestation Paper.”

[26] “WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Joseph Callanan, “Attestation Paper.”

[27] “WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Joseph Callanan, “Attestation Paper.”

[28] “WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Joseph Callanan, “Casaulty from Active Service.”

[29] “WWI Veterans Administration Records.” Joseph Callanan, “Casaulty from Active Service.”

[30] Joseph Callanan to Frederick Tregillus, May 23, 1916, Letter 28, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[31] “WWI Veterans Administration Records,” Joseph Callanan, “Intelligence Summary.”

[32] “WWI Veterans Administration Records,” Joseph Callanan, “Intelligence Summary.”

[33] “WWI Veterans Administration Records,” Joseph Callanan, “Will,” January 13, 1916.

[34] “Family Group Record #2,” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[35] P.M. Lindsay to Barkerville Historic Town, March 10, 2000, Letter, Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[36] “Aliens and Naturalization,” August 7, 1881, Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[37] “Verification of Marriage Particulers G146,” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[38] “Family Group Record #2,” reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[39] Wright, Richard Thomas. Discover Barkerville, 132.

[40] “Family Group Record #2,” reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[41] “Family Group Record #2,” reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[42] George Gilchrist to Frederick Tregillus, October 22, 1917, Letter 86, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[43] George Gilchrist to Frederick Tregillus, December 6, 1917, Letter 87, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[44] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, November 11, 1917, Letter 13, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[45] “Family Group Record #2,” reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[46] “Short Form. Proceedings on Discharge. (Demobilization.),” George Nicholas Brown, Barkerville Library and Archives, Reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[47] “Proceedings on Discharge,” George Nicholas Brown, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[48] “Proceedings on Discharge,” George Nicholas Brown, reference folder “Brown, Nicholas Henry and Family Folder #1.”

[49] Hong, William. …And So… That’s how it Happened, 234-236.

[50] Hong, William. …And So… That’s how it Happened, 221.

[51] “The Military Service Act, 1917,” Accessed July 13, 2013, http://www.lermuseum.org/en/canadas-military-history/first-world-war/homefront-1917/military-service-act/.

[52] “Canadian Expeditionary Force, 54th Battalion, Nominal Roll of Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and Men,” Barkerville Library and Archives, reference folder “World War I,” and “67th Battalion, Nominal Roll,” Reference folder “World War I.”

[53] “Chinese-Canadians in World War I (1914-1918),” Vancouver Island Public Library, accessed July 24, 2013, http://www.vpl.ca/ccg/WWI.html.

[54] Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, British Columbia, December 31, 1915, Barkerville Library and Archives, “Cariboo District, Cariboo Mining District,” K54.

[55] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, April 25, 1916, Letter 1, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[56] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, February 21, 1919, Letter 19, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[57] “WWI Veterans Administration Records,” Newspaper bulletin, “the ladies of the town and district are reminded...” Cariboo Observer, no date.

[58] “WWI Veterans Administration Records,” Newspaper editorial, “Appreciate the work of the Women,” Cariboo Observer, no date.

[59] “Woman Pioneer of Cariboo Dies Here,” The Daily Colonist, Victoria, British Columbia, January 5, 1923, Barkerville Library and Archive, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[60] “Woman Pioneer of Cariboo Dies Here,” Barkerville Library and Archive, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[61] ““Woman Pioneer of Cariboo Dies Here,” Barkerville Library and Archive, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[62] “Woman Pioneer of Cariboo Dies Here,” Barkerville Library and Archive, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[63] “Woman Pioneer of Cariboo Dies Here,” Barkerville Library and Archive, reference folder “Brown, Robert Henry and Family.”

[64] Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, British Columbia, December 31, 1914, Barkerville Library and Archives, “Cariboo Mining District, Cariboo Mining Division,” K51.

[65] Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, British Columbia, December 31, 1915, Barkerville Library and Archives, “Cariboo District, Cariboo Mining District,” K54.

[66] Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, British Columbia, December 31, 1916, Barkerville Library and Archives, “Cariboo District, Cariboo Mining Division,” K37.

[67] Annual Report of the Minister of Mines, British Columbia, December 31, 1917, Barkerville Library and Archives, “Progress of Mining,” F15.

[68] Ernest Seeley to Frederick Tregillus, December 7, 1917, Letter 14, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[69] Gilbert Freeman Killam to Frederick Trgillus, July 10, 1917, Letter 23, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

[70] Unknown to Frederick Tregillus, Febuary 10, 1919, Letter 25, “Tregillus Letters: World War I.”

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